Micro Review: From Student Markets to Credential Markets (Beadie, 1999) The History of Education Quarterly

Micro-Review: From Student Markets to Credential Markets: The Creation of the Regents Examination System in New York State, 1864-1890 by Nancy Beadie (HEQ, Vol. 39, No. 1, Spring 1999, pp. 1-30)

Well, it’s really happening. I am finally going to be enrolling in a doctoral program in History of Education at the University of Washington. The two History of Ed. Professors there are Joy Williamson-Lott, and Nancy Beadie, both of whom I have now been in contact with, if briefly. But in two weeks I have a meeting scheduled with Dr. Beadie to discuss next steps for me as I gear up to move to Seattle and get started with this. So, with these big changes as the backdrop, I’ve been anxious to get started reading and thinking more specifically about the kinds of research I’ll be able to do at UW as well as the kinds of questions I’ll be best supported in asking with my research by Dr. Beadie and Dr. Williamson-Lott.

In my digging around for papers that would give me a clearer picture of what Dr. Beadie’s research is about, I came across this one, now more than 20 years old, in the History of Education Quarterly Archives. Dr. Beadie was the Editor of that journal as recently as last year, I believe, and she still plays an active role in the History of Education Society, a group which I should very likely be joining in the not too distant future. This article was identified in a retrospective of HEQ pieces voted most representative of the periodical over the 50 years from 1960 to 2010. It’s a piece that seems to link Dr. Beadie’s research track along the line of private schools and academies in North America from the 18th century into the 19th century, with her main current area of research of educational markets and the emergence of educational systems in States. The piece focuses on the State of New York. And it is an institutional history, that is the research is focused on the governance of and demographic impact of the New York Board of Regents, establishment of a system of secondary examinations in the late 1860s. These Board of Regents Exams comprise the United States’ oldest regime of standardized testing. But at the heart of the significance of this new educational technology, the State-wide standardized test, Beadie argues, is a credential marketplace, which replaced, the student marketplace that colleges in North American had relied on to that pointi.

The significance of the creation of this new kind of market is in the analysis and conclusions it allows historians to make about the scarcity of education during this time period and the impact of that scarcity both locally and across jurisdictions in a region. So, not only are local politicians and education administrators suddenly on the hook for greater access to these credentials, but individuals could essentially trade on them for access to college education. What remains unclear from Beadie’s analysis is a clarification of the reason for or in Beadie’s words, “chronology” of the initial implementation of the Board of Regents’ policies. Beadie shows that the new exams came in the wake of a long decrease in public school enrollment. And interestingly, demographic analysis of New York high school graduates of the late 19th century, women were the greatest beneficiaries of this new credential system. But I have a hard time imagining that achieving a greater level of gender parity of students qualified for college was what the New York Board of Regents had in mind when they implemented this policy to begin with.

So, to connect this back to my initial concerns about finding a suitable home for the research I want to do as a grad student, I am impressed by the logical moves that institutional histories like these are able to make from demographic data, but I hope that my research will be able to bring a more human face to findings like these. Actually, on that note, I want to re-read another article from the HEQ that Beadie wrote I believe with Kim Tolley, another past HEQ editor, I believe, that dealt with some letters from a New York teacher who traveled to North Carolina to become a school teacher during the late 19th century. This may be a better fit in terms of the type of history I want to be writing. It’s very important to me to center teachers as powerful decision makers in communities, especially when they are acting in solidarity with their communities towards social justice aims. But, of course, this teacher agency only comes into play against the backdrop of the larger social-political and economic universe of schooling. I guess, sometimes its even at odds with the direction these larger forces are pushing. In the case of this Board of Regents creation of a new market, a set of policies, which is dubious, at best, given the rampant standardized testing of the present day, actually seems to have worked in favor of the masses of New Yorkers, and women in particular, at least in the short-term.

iNote: I’m curious, how did student markets function prior to the invention of such credential markets. Were they more like labor markets? I can see how, on its face, the credential is different from the student, but the credential cannot really be separated from the student. It has no exchange value, so to speak. It’s only value appears to be vis-a-vis the individual student who obtains it. So, this is a point of further study for me.

No No Boy by John Okada (Introduction)

Just started reading No-No Boy by John Okada. From the Introduction I was hooked. I mean, I was expecting it to be a powerful book, but Lawson Fusao Inada and the other researchers involved in the Combined Asian American Resources Project (CARP!) which re-published the novel in 1979 were obviously hugely affected when they discovered this book. Actually, the introduction mentions a few others as well, that I wanted to list up here, so I can keep following this thread in the future.

Frank Chin “Chickencoop Chinaman”– first Asian-American drama produced by “legitimate theater”

David Ishii (Seattle “landmark” Asian-Americana bookstore)– what is it called? Does it still exist?

Shawn Wong, Inada, Ishii and Chin, “Aiiieeeee!” Literary Magazine dedicated to John Okada and Louis Chu.

George Takei’s performance of Chin’s “The Year of the Dragon” televised nationally

Franklin Odo– Asian-American Studies Teacher at UCLA.

Image result for America is in the heart

Carlos Bulosan’s America is in the Heart (1946, 1973)

Eat a Bowl of Tea (Louis Chu novel).jpg

Louis Chu’s Eat a Bowl of Tea (1961)

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Toshio Mori’s Yokohama, California (1949)

Why We Never Die – The New York Times

I don’t think my son is old enough to experience these complicated, deep fears, but I remember very clearly when they struck.  I wonder how common this is across different cultures– how parents deal with these fears in their children– how I will handle this coming stage of my children’s intellectual development.  Is this a problem that is ever truly resolved in us?

Source: Why We Never Die – The New York Times

More Philosohpy in Popular Culture: I Heart Huckabees


I Heart Huckabees - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

I Heart Huckabees – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

A close friend of mine recently brought up this movie and I thought I’d take a quick look at it again as a means of winding up the ignorance log portion of this blog; but also as a possible bridge to other nearby blips on the radar.  So, I watched it again, and, aside from a lot of very sexy actors and actresses (especially Lily Tomlin and Dustin Hoffman– meow) there’s some interesting philosophical content here as well.  If nothing else, I could see using this to teach about portions of the stream of background questions of philosophy as a discipline– questions about being and knowledge and truth and action and beauty and right and wrong.

Also, a lot of the content of this film around the nature of being seems to jibe very closely with Jill Bolte Taylor’ TED presentation, here, particularly when Marky Mark is hitting himself in the face with a rubber ball.

Anyway, I’ll be paying closer attention to this genre of movies as I round out the semester in EDST 597.  I’m interested to see what particular philosophical paradigms are most closely associated with Hollywood scripts like this one…  Trying to brainstorm some other titles… of course, there’s Into the WildBeing There (1979) with Peter Sellers is another one that came up in discussing this with my housemates this evening.  The Matrix, would be another good one I suppose.  But I should define “philosophical” a little more specifically.  The Wikipedia article on I [heart] Huckabees, for instance, refers to the film as a “philosophical comedy.”  It’s not clear whether “philosophical” is in this case referring to an existing genre or is just an innocent modifier of “comedy.”  Such a delimitation along the lines of a genre– even if it’s one I invent myself– would be helpful here.  That’s why I’ve been leaning towards “popular philosophy” as the appropriate descriptor.  But that makes is sound like self-help books or something.

Perhaps Monty Python’s The Meaning of Life would fit here.  Or Life of Brian for that matter.  Beyond being didactic, which I Heart Huckabees flirts with occasionally, I’m interested in finding movies which stand up on the merits of their stories.  Jaffe and Jaffe (the characters played by Tomlin and Hoffman) are hilarious, apart from their lengthy expository soliloquies.  But the focus of the film should take a turn for the more or less explicitly philosophical.  It can’t merely be some character espousing a certain philosophy– there has to be some philosophical turn– I want to see a character doing philosophy in the film.  Like when Neo is being grilled by Morpheus aboard the Nebuchadnezzar.  A sci fi series like the original Star Trek which deals in an episodic fashion with certain philosophical problems might also qualify by this rubric.  I suppose a documentary like Examined Life would count as well.  Still need to take a look at that one.

Ignorance Log Chapter 2: The Need of a Theory of Experience

The belief that all genuine education comes about through experience does not mean that all experiences are genuinely or equally educative (p.28).

By what authority do we know if we’ve had an educative experience or not?  Is this part of the role of the teacher?  Is it necessary to be aware of our our experiences as educative or not (i.e. through meta-cognition)?

Just because traditional education was a matter of routine in which the plans and programs were handed down from the past, it does not follow that progressive education is a matter of planless improvisation (p.29).

How did Dewey’s conception of the necessity of educational philosophy work against his view of traditional education?  What does it mean that Dewey’s conception of educational philosophy ran so thoroughly against his conception of traditional education?  Was traditional education for Dewey an “un-philosophical?”  Howso?

I admit gladly that the new [progressive] education is simpler in principle than the old…  while there is very much which is artificial in the old selection and arrangement of subjects and methods, and artificiality always leads to unnecessary complexity.  But the easy and the simple are not identical.  To discover what is really simple and to act upon the discovery is an exceedingly difficult task.  After the artificial and complex is once institutionally established and ingrained in custom and routine, it is easier to walk in the paths that have been beaten than it is, after taking a new point of view, to work out what is practically involved in the new point of view. . . [yadda yadda Ptolemaic & Copernican Astronomy] (p. 30).

Ignorance Log Chapter 1: Traditional versus Progressive Education

Progressive Education in the 1940s (YouTube)

The above video does a pretty good job of presenting what most people in the first half of the 20th century must’ve had in mind when they thought of “Traditional” versus “Progressive” education.  But what exactly does Dewey mean when he uses these two terms?

As Dewey’s soundbite from the close of this video notes, Dewey’s idea of Progressive education consists in, above all, preparing students for an ever-developing future, not, as Hannah Arendt concludes, in somehow burdening children with responsibility for the present or, as proponents of Traditional education would have it, of giving children an opportunity to absorb some knowledge of the past.

But does Dewey see these distinctions as absolutes?  Are Progressive and Traditional modes of education always completely distinct and, if so, how do we tell the difference?

These are questions that Dewey sets up in his first chapter of Experience and Education.  To be answered later in chapters 2 and 3.

Dewey sees school as a uniquely organized institution, as distinct from Family or other social institutions.  Does school organized around Deweyan principles of Progressivism blur this distinction?  What is it that distinguishes the “traditional school” in this way?

Dewey refers again and again to a sort conception of the world as constantly changing.  What is the nature of this change?  How does Dewey conceive of change?  Is he referring to people changing as subjects or to the world changing as the object of experience?  Or both or something else?  How does the world change?  Again these questions are I think answered ultimately in the following chapters, but it will be good to come back to these, even though they’re not exactly central questions.

Dewey asks a lot of his own questions as a means of further unfolding his arguments.  Here are a few of those from Chapter 1:

The problem for progressive education is:  what is the place and meaning of subject-matter and of organization within experience?  How does subject-matter function?  Is there anything inherent in experience which tends towards progressive organization of its contents?  What results follow when the materials of experience are not progressively organized?

In Chapter 4 Dewey is going to dive headlong into questions of authority and control which are hinted at above in this discussion of “organization.”

I don’t want to apologize for Dewey– anyway it would take more than a scholar of my stature to prop him up.  But more than that I am really curious about his beliefs with regard to Empiricism.  Westbrook claimed that Dewey was not a Positivist, but does this mean that he was not a Realist?  Actually later on in Chapter 3, Dewey outlines what is basically a Constructionist view of knowledge production, so that definitely rules out Positivism, but he was keen to decenter epistemological questions anyway in favor of metaphysics (e.g. of experience) and ethics (i.e. Democracy).

Dewey poses the following question towards the end of Chapter 1, and I believe that it is perhaps THE central question in E&EWhat is the role of the teacher in progressive education?  That’s definitely one I’ll want to expand on later and in my final essay.

Final question for Chapter 1:  When Dewey writes,

We may reject knowledge of the past as the end of education, and thereby only emphasize its importance as a means… How shall the young become acquainted with the past in such a way that the acquaintance is a potent agent in appreciation of the living present?

Does he recognize the submersion of the past and present in hegemony?  Is the recognition of a “living present” the same as a historical view of the present?

More to the point:  Is it possible that Dewey recognizes the problems of traditional schooling without recognizing their root causes in systematic inequalities and injustices in society?  I don’t think Dewey would have used the word “hegemony” at any rate, but perhaps the phenomenon that he describes later as “educative experience” depends upon some recognition of systemic injustice at play.

Paulo Freire: liberation theology and Marx (subtitled) – YouTube

Paulo Freire: liberation theology and Marx (subtitled) – YouTube.

on transcendentality.  How is the translation on this one?  Need to go back and have a listen for that small detail.  Also, is it the same transcendentality of, say, Thoreau?  Into the Wild?  Need to find out more about the Highlander School in Mounteagle (and later Knoxville and elsewhere) in Tennessee.  I’m wondering if there was ever any cross-talk between the Highlander folks and the Black Mountain folks across the Blue Ridge from them…

Does the Highlander School still operate?  Isn’t there some family connection to the highlander school?  Was my great grandfather a student there at one time?  Or have I imagined that anecdote…  That would make an incredible epistolary novel…  digging through letters from Highlander School people… wonder if there’s an organized archive of Highlander materials somewhere… maybe in Knoxville?

I love that the Southern Appalachians have this tradition of resistance to the mainstream of Southern American culture that is I think much more measured, thoughtful and if nothing else a reflection of a strongly communitarian lower-middle class d.i.y. ethic in the mountains, which is muted if not conspicuously absent in the foothills south of the Smokies– in an arc from Atlanta, GA east to Columbia and the Upstate of South Carolina, north and east to Charlotte, NC and further north east still to Winston-Salem and Greensboro…  I believe it has something to do with the landscape.  But what exactly, I’m not so sure I could say…

The Net Worth of the U.S. Presidents: From Washington to Obama – 24/7 Wall St. – Business – The Atlantic

The Net Worth of the U.S. Presidents: From Washington to Obama – 24/7 Wall St. – Business – The Atlantic.

This was a pretty sweet article.  The concept was brought to my attention by the January 30th episode of the Rachel Maddow in which she reports that Romney is the wealthiest Presidential Candidate since JFK and LBJ.  I was curious to compare.

You can get that episode of the Rachel Maddow show here

Also, from that episode of Maddow: Thomas Dewey– what relation if any to John Dewey?  Need to get back to posting on the ignorance log…  still waiting on the book in the mail, but have ordered it from the library at this point… I might actually have a chance to do some of that reading this weekend when we head up to Mt. Baker.