GRE Argument Topic 10: Real Estate Development in 3 Tree Counties

Argument Topic 10

ESSAY PROMPT

The council of Maple County, concerned about the county’s becoming overdeveloped, is debating a proposed measure that would prevent the development of existing farmland in the county. But the council is also concerned that such a restriction, by limiting the supply of new housing, could lead to significant increases in the price of housing in the county. Proponents of the measure note that Chestnut County established a similar measure ten years ago, and its housing prices have increased only modestly since. However, opponents of the measure note that Pine County adopted restrictions on the development of new residential housing fifteen years ago, and its housing prices have since more than doubled. The council currently predicts that the proposed measure, if passed, will result in a significant increase in housing prices in Maple County.

Write a response in which you discuss what questions would need to be answered in order to decide whether the prediction and the argument on which it is based are reasonable. Be sure to explain how the answers to these questions would help to evaluate the prediction.

 

ESSAY

The underlying argument being made by Maple County government is that its housing development situation is most similar to that of Pine County, where in the span of 15 years since the passage of a new measure limiting development, prices have doubled. This doesn’t preclude some similarities to Chestnut County, where prices have increased only modestly after a similar measure, but it signifies Maple County’s more cautious approach to housing prices. In order to come to evaluate Maple County’s decision effectively, some other factors need to be taken into account, to whit: the rate at Pine County and Chestnut County’s housing prices have increased in the years ensuing since the passage of their respective policy measures, the projected rates of change for housing costs in the future in those communities, and in what ways each communities’ policy measures differed with respect to the amount of development that was allowed. When these factors are taken into account, the Maple County leadership will be able to make a much more clear-eyed decision about the fate of their community.

The most glaring question has to do with the relative similarities of these three Counties. Is Maple more similar to Chestnut or Pine and in what respects? Likewise, how similar are Chestnut and Pine to each other. The time scale on the data presented here is such that Pine and Chestnut Counties’ housing price rates could very well be increasing at identical rates. That is the prices in Pine County may well have increased at only a modest rate in the first 10 years before nearly doubling in the interim between the tenth and fifteenth. In any event, the Maple County real estate mavens have judged that their community is dangerously similar to Pine in the longer term, but more information, on the congruencies of these economies would certainly help fine tune any policy decision.

Another factor that is absolutely begging for further elucidation is the actual rates of development that were allowed for farmland in these three arborial burroughs. The powers that be in Maple would do well in their preliminary studies to tweak the development side of the equation too. In other words, how much farmland was allowed to be developed over time in Chestnut and Pine. Can these development numbers be correlated with the ballooning housing prices there. This more refined speculation might well give the Maple council members a hint about how much farmland development ought to be allowed in an ideal situation.

This is certainly not an exhaustive list of further factors for study. Starting and ending housing prices in each community would be more than pertinent….

REFLECTION

This is the second one of these I wrote this morning.  Not at all confident about it.  But it was a good stamina check.  I happened to pick 2 very similar topics– both dealing with small community economic policies.  Need to make certain I don’t let my ideology get the best of me and start leaking out into my writing in the form of irrelevant off-topic palavering.

Next to Last Issue Topic on the List

Issue Topic 39

ESSAY PROMPT

 

The following appeared as part of an article in a Dillton newspaper.

“In an effort to bring new jobs to Dillton and stimulate the city’s flagging economy, Dillton’s city council voted last year to lower the city’s corporate tax rate by 15 percent; at the same time, the city began offering generous relocation grants to any company that would move to Dillton. Since these changes went into effect, two new factories have opened in Dillton. Although the two factories employ more than 1,000 people, the unemployment rate in Dillton remains unchanged. The only clear explanation for this is that the new factories are staffed with out-of-town workers rather than Dillton residents.”

Write a response in which you discuss one or more alternative explanations that could rival the proposed explanation and explain how your explanation(s) can plausibly account for the facts presented in the argument.

ESSAY

Apart from the possibility that the factories are employing workers from out of town, there are several other plausible explanations for the unchanging employment rate in Dillton despite the relocation of two new factories there. This issue illustrates that in tackling public policy problems communities must necessarily take the broadest possible view of possible effects and outcomes both positive and negative. For instance, lowering the corporate tax rate by a sweeping 15% is a broad-brush measure that likely has many unintended effects on the economy of the region. This paired with new expenditures on relocation grants while for companies, ignores the important role that labor plays in this delicate public policy equation. Clearly Dillton has not done enough to ensure that their community is a desirable place for workers to live. And future economic policy initiatives would serve the community well to do so.

It is common for a community’s most successful entrepreneurs to become involved in local government. These individuals are the most well-connected, most powerful members of that community and they arguably have the greatest stake in the long-term health of the community. However, these individuals are by no means the perfect geniuses of economics that their biographers would make them out to be. When such individuals are empowered to steer the governance of a community, they bring their particular biases and political connections and prior commitments with them. It would seem that the leaders of Dillton are no exception to this all-too-common common scenario. Their decision to offer companies a tax boost likely reflect their professional experience as executives and the prior ideological and social commitments therein. Dillton’s City Council in seeking to solve the unemployment problem in their town have ironically failed to take into account the perspectives of the common workers.

A more thorough explanation of the failure of Dillton’s new policy to provide work for the people, would need take into account the living conditions in that community. If reasonably priced housing, schools, access to healthcare and recreational facilities are absent, or the people the community are otherwise disincentivised from staying or moving there for work, then the overall employment situation will suffer. Indeed, any gains made from the tax and grants policies may even be offset by the flight of workers who, despite new employment opportunities, have only meager desire to stay in town.

The quality of jobs available to workers as a result of these policies is also another potential roadblock to the improvement of the unemployment situation there. In other words, if the workers skill sets don’t match the jobs available, then the town’s economy is back to square-one in terms of the unemployment puzzle. The Dillton city council owes its citizens and resident workers to be more attentive to their living conditions, their educations and training levels, and to the factors which will satisfy their needs.

REFLECTION

Started going off the rails a bit in the second paragraph.  Is it necessary for me to be making a sort of overarching argument about the failings of the bourgeois city council in general?  Is it worth trying to organize my essay in this way, or am I just creating a pitfall for myself…  I dunno.  In this case, since I was able to kind of pull things back together in the final paragraph, I think it works.  My second essay this morning was not so successful that way.

 

How Can We Build Anti-Racist White Educators?

One teacher reflects on what he and other white educators need to understand as they work to build anti-racist practices and identities.

Source: How Can We Build Anti-Racist White Educators?

This is a great, short piece from a periodical that I subscribe to online called Teaching Tolerance.  The title is a little misleading– or maybe it’s kind of a bait-and-switch. That is, I think the editors went with the word ‘tolerance’ because this more passe term gives you alliteration with ‘teaching.’  But don’t fooled, the contents is a much more robust anti-racism than the title would suggest.  However, the articles and hands-on, project-based, deeply reflective pieces in Teach Tolerance make it accessible across a broad spectrum of teachers, including those who may not be as well versed with the latest radical jargon etc., but teachers who are committed to making their teaching more just.

Also, this piece reminded me how much I really need to read more deeply in James Baldwin’s oeuvre.

Argument Task 6: Arctic Deer or Correlation Isn’t Causation or Data Shouldn’t Be Construed as Evidence Like This Probably

Argument Topic 6

 

ESSAY PROMPT

Arctic deer live on islands in Canada’s arctic regions. They search for food by moving over ice from island to island during the course of the year. Their habitat is limited to areas warm enough to sustain the plants on which they feed and cold enough, at least some of the year, for the ice to cover the sea separating the islands, allowing the deer to travel over it. Unfortunately, according to reports from local hunters, the deer populations are declining. Since these reports coincide with recent global warming trends that have caused the sea ice to melt, we can conclude that the purported decline in deer populations is the result of the deer’s being unable to follow their age-old migration patterns across the frozen sea.

 

Write a response in which you discuss what specific evidence is needed to evaluate the argument and explain how the evidence would weaken or strengthen the argument.

 

ESSAY

 

It may be impossible to discover the root cause of the decline in artic deer populations in this scenario, and while the likelihood of its link to global warming seems high given the dramatic change in this species’ habitat as described in the prompt, this linkage cannot be taken for granted. Indeed, as the prompt states, the reports of declines in population merely coincide with global warming trends. Nevertheless global warming should not be taken lightly, and it has undoubtedly had some effect on the deer communities in arctic Canada.

I am not an expert in the field of ecology or mammalian biology, but there would appear to be at least some intermediate points of investigation that might reveal the true nature of the deer’s decline in population. First, we learn that the deer rely on very limited amount of vegetation for their sustenance—vegetation that is also sensitive to temperature. So, some evidence of this vegetation’s thriving or lack thereof might shed some light on the subject. If the rising average temperatures in the deer’s habitat is too warm for the deer’s food to grow and thrive, those deer are going to be in trouble for lack of food. Granted, this contingency seems unlikely since, the prompt seems to suggest that these arctic vegetables grow well in the warm weather, but barring evidence to this effect, no firm conclusion is possible.

Likewise, the deer may be becoming stranded or otherwise isolated by the greater degree of ice-melt brought on by rising temperatures. It is possible, and here again the prompt seems to suggest that the deer may be unable to mate and reproduce on account of decreased mobility. Some evidence of the deer’s reproduction levels might be just the bit of data required to crack this case. The hunters, whose reports of lower deer populations represent the core recipients of human downstream consequences of the those fluctuating populations, could be tapped for reports or counts of deer offspring. And this might give some clue as to the fertility of the animals and shed a bit more light on the problem. But here again, even if a definitive change in deer fertility could be proved, this evidence would remain correlative, and the search ought to continue in order to flesh out this story with greater detail and more accurate and robust data.

All in all, there are any number of factors which might be leading to the reported decline in arctic deer populations. Indeed, even these reports ought to be corroborated by some evidence other than the reports of the hunters—not to call their judgement into question, simply to be as thorough and scientific as time and resources allow. Ultimately, I believe pinning a causal relationship on such a massive global phenomenon as climate change is foolish. Such a huge background effect is bound to have consequences across a broad swath of possible substrates for scientific evidence—the pH of the water in the ecosystem, changes in weather patterns, even the quality of the air, and the susceptibility of these islands landmasses to erosion. But all of these areas would be ripe for a search for evidence.

 

REFLECTION– went about a minute long on this one as I pieced the final paragraph together.  I felt like I may have been a little too snooty about the correlation is not causation thing.  But if I could be critical for a moment of the question prompt, it seems to be making conflating ecological data with the sort of evidence that you might find in a court case.  Science is never so pat– never so cut and dried– as evidence in a court of law purports to be.

Also, I deserve a pat on the back for sticking to doing 1 of these a day this week!  W00t!

Also, I tend to overuse commas. :\

It’s after midnight, which is affecting my ability to judge, but I’m not sure I answered the prompt in the way the test-makers wanted me to.  Is it wise to attempt to point out flaws in the construction of a test question in the context of answering it on a given test?  Write a response in which you discuss…

GRE Practice Argument Topic 5: Balmer Island Mopeds

ESSAY PROMPT

The following appeared in a letter to the editor of the Balmer Island Gazette.

“On Balmer Island, where mopeds serve as a popular form of transportation, the population increases to 100,000 during the summer months. To reduce the number of accidents involving mopeds and pedestrians, the town council of Balmer Island should limit the number of mopeds rented by the island’s moped rental companies from 50 per day to 25 per day during the summer season. By limiting the number of rentals, the town council will attain the 50 percent annual reduction in moped accidents that was achieved last year on the neighboring island of Seaville, when Seaville’s town council enforced similar limits on moped rentals.”

Write a response in which you discuss what questions would need to be answered in order to decide whether the recommendation is likely to have the predicted result. Be sure to explain how the answers to these questions would help to evaluate the recommendation.

ESSAY

The introduction of a strict daily limit on moped rentals from 50 to just 25 per day on Balmer Island in order to achieve a 50% reduction in moped accidents is a policy that raises a number of important questions from both the point of view of economic viability and feasibility given the specific features of the Balmer Island community and its potential differences from its model neighbor, Seaville. There are also a number of specific concerns with regard to the efficacy of such a policy implementation across both communities.

First of all, there is the question of population. Balmer Island’s population during the summer months balloons to 100,000. But what percentage increase does this represent with respect to that community’s population during the off-season? And how does that compare with Seaville’s population? On the topic of demographics, the average age of moped users would be another useful factor to come to take into account since it is common knowledge that younger drivers are more predisposed to traffic accidents.

In addition to these demographic concerns, such infrastructure issues as the quality of each community’s roads and multi-modal transportation infrastructure might also come into play. For instance, a high rate of bus or taxi usage in Seaville may have tacitly contributed to or helped catalyze the effects of that town’s moped policy. Plus, the sheer quality of roads and bridges may have accounted for some of the accidents on Balmer Island. That is, it might be pertinent to know the relative age of these two communities’ roadways and their relative levels of maintenance.

Beyond these concerns, it would certainly be helpful to know precisely what sort of policy Seaville implemented that saw such a drastic decrease in the number of accidents from one year to the next. We are told that it was similar to the one under consideration on Balmer Island, but in what respects is it different? And how was it enforced? Were any fines issued to rental companies? Were there any costs associated with increased levels of vigilance or policing? What was the reaction to the policy by all the relevant stakeholders? In the prompt, Seaville’s moped policy measure seems to be viewed as a positive or strived-for model by the denizens of Balmer Island, but policy makers would do well to investigate the longer-term effects of the policy both on public safety as well as the local tourist economy. How was it successful apart from the reduction of accidents? Limiting transportation options for visitors may indeed decrease noise levels and add to the overall beauty of the island, but what unintended negative consequences might there have been?

Most obviously, I can’t imagine that the moped rental sector of the town’s industry was very enthusiastic about the mandated cuts. Then again, this may have allowed for price cuts. So, one final, crucial line of questioning would go to the core of the matter itself—what were the effects on the rental companies? Were Seaville moped rental services able to charge more for their newly scarce commodity? Or on the contrary, were their businesses undercut by new public awareness of the environmental nuisance of the bikes?

These are some of the centrally important questions that Balmer town council would need to address in their deliberations over this policy.

REFLECTION

I wrote this essay after watching 2 episodes of Breaking Bad.  It’s not clear how this timing affected my writing.  But I feel more confident about this ESSAY than about yesterday’s “ISSUE TOPIC.”  I just asked myself, “What would Gus Fring do in this situation?”  And the answer came tapping from the tips of my fingers: poison Don Eladio, take your revenge on the Cartel, and score a 6 on the open-ended section of the test.  So, that’s probably what I did.

But don’t take my word for it!

GRE Practice Log Issue Topic 2

The following is my log of practice essays written in advance of my GRE test next month in Osaka.  The Issue Topics and Argument Topics are all taken from the ETS website.  Every possible topic is apparently listed there comprehensively.  I want to get as high a score as possible and give the educational testing industry as little of my money as possible.  But the tricky part about these open-ended questions is that they require human judgement on both the creation of the problems and the evaluation of the answers…  So, I need to find some good graded model answers (on the cheap).  Naturally, any comments are welcome.

ESSAY PROMPT

To understand the most important characteristics of a society, one must study its major cities.

Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the statement and explain your reasoning for the position you take. In developing and supporting your position, you should consider ways in which the statement might or might not hold true and explain how these considerations shape your position.

MY ESSAY (written in 30 minutes)

I agree that to understand the most important characteristics of a society, one must study its major cities, but I agree with some reservations. Indeed, the opposite extreme of this statement seems obviously false—that is, a full understanding of a society would be impossible without studying its major cities. So, that is one caveat. But also, the history of humankind extends into times and places prior to the existence of cities. So, limiting one’s study to cities would certainly be a misstep. Finally, it has been my experience, having grown up on the edge of a small city, that life in cities is inextricably linked to the rural areas around them, making a meaningful separation of urban and rural society impossible. All that being said, cities are, after all, the most concentrated population centers of a given society. And society is defined by the relationships between people. So, it is natural that the study of a society would necessitate an investigation of its cities.

First to go in to more detail about some of my reservations about studying society only through the lens of its cities, I believe the strongest evidence to support this reservation is historical. Humans have not always lived in cities. Cities are a rather new development in the evolution of society. So, for a more historically contiguous view of society writ large, ignoring the countryside in favor of the metropolis would be folly. However, the bulk of humanity in a given society reside in its cities today.

Second, my personal connection to both city and country life neither bias me for or against cities. However, I have grown up understanding the value of both. Institutions like museums and public infrastructure like trains and libraries and schools are present in much greater concentration in cities. And these institutions are certainly rich in value for the study of any society. On the other hand, the natural beauty and the ways in which humans have found to live either in harmony or at odds with their natural environment is most easily accessible through prolonged exposure to rural society.

Finally, on purely economic grounds, often cities depend very dearly on the enterprise of the surrounding countryside. The wealth of mines, pastures, dairies, and farms supply the bulk of humanity that populate cities. And these economic linkages are reflected in culture as well. But a study of a society that neglects these linkages between urban and rural would be incomplete at best.

 

Therefore…[unfinished]

Teachers donating sick days is a symptom of a wretched system

On July 24, Florida high school teacher Robert Goodman posted a picture of himself during chemo treatment. Having run short on sick days, Goodman appealed to fellow school employees, who donated enough days for him to take a semester off and complete treatment.
Goodman’s is one in a slew of stories about teachers and workers donating sick time or parental leave, a trend lauded earlier this summer by Good Morning America. But while it’s heartwarming to see the extent to which teachers support each other, part of the reason that’s true is that teachers have become so acutely economically vulnerable. As his students start school this week without him, lack of paid leave — for personal sickness like Goodman’s, the birth or adoption of a child, or to care for a loved one — shows just how vulnerable teachers are, and how inhumane the system has become.

AP World History Is Worth Saving

Teachers are pushing back against proposed changes they say would reframe AP World History as Eurocentric. Teaching Tolerance stands with them.

Source: AP World History Is Worth Saving

The College Board, which makes these tests, should be coming out with a response to all of the teachers who have told them what a terrible, dishonest switcheroo this would be.

Also, one argument that I didn’t hear Teaching Tolerance making has to do with other existing AP history courses– namely AP European and US History (and to some extent AP Art History) which between them seem to duplicate most of the material that would be covered in an AP world history course from 1400 to the present.

Micro Review: Reading Japanese Education by Diane M. Hoffman

The opening Chapter, in DeCoker and Bjork’s Japanese Education in an Era of Globalization is a very helpful starting point for this collection of essays.  Hoffman begins with criticism of any “holistic” view of Japanese education which seeks to explain the entirety of a complex system by offering some “grand model.”  One such “grand model,” is the “Centrality of the Ministry of Education.”  Hoffman, doesn’t deny that their is some utility in for example a critical understanding of Japanese education in terms of a powerful centralized bureaucracy, but she is rightfully wary of any such account that mythologizes or adds excessive moral significance to such artifacts as political organization.  In this regard, Hoffman is somewhat skeptical of the genre of ethnographic research in general.  But she allows that research that seeks to understand Japanese education in comparison with other contexts is most useful when it neither erases diversity nor seeks to hold up Japan as a model.

The reminder of Hoffman’s essay describes four guiding themes or “tensions” in Japanese educational research.  She is observing patterns in existing research rather than suggesting areas for future study.  Likewise, her identification of themes or tensions don’t foreclose on alternatives.  Those four themes are as follows:

cultural versus structural effects

individual versus collective selves

education for belonging versus education for transformation

and homogeneity versus diversity.

In my experience as a teacher in Japan, and in my limited exposure to the literature on Japanese comparative education, I can see why these themes would present themselves as most evident or available means of analysis of the education system here.  First, as Hoffman echos in her essay, the Japanese nation and the Japanese cultural identity are conflated at every turn, both in and outside of academia.  But it is undeniable that “Japaneseness” is a cultural category that has had far-reaching effects even spilling over into political structures like citizenship and discourses in education like globalization.  I suppose this is the thematic substrate that I am most interested in accessing in my own writing about Japanese education, particularly in light of Hoffman’s closing salvo on “culture, power and difference in reading Japanese education,” but more on that in a moment.

The individual versus collective selves theme, is another one that I see becoming more prominent particularly in light of the neoliberal dominance of educational policy.  That is, the urge in neoliberal discourses of education to treat all aspects of educational systems as flows of capital has often bumped up against a deeper historical imperative for cooperation and a native democratic humanism that predates the arrival of liberalism in Japan from Europe.  Here again, though, the key is how best to use these categories of analysis without essentializing them or mythologizing unnecessarily.

Hoffman’s theme of education for belonging versus transformation is the one which I am least familiar with.  She mentions it specifically with regard to discourses of situated learning– from shellfish divers to violin teacher training.  This is an area of the literature which I will hopefully get a bit more exposure to as I read through Bjork and DeCoker’s collection.  It is also an axis along which it seems like it would be helpful to analyze teacher education in general.

Finally, comes Hoffman’s category of homogeneity versus diversity.  This one seems much more familiar and easily accessible to me, especially given my experiences as a foreign national working as a foreign language teacher in Japan.  But it also strikes me as a useful access point for criticism of ability tracking that is so prevalent here.

To return to Hoffman’s closing nod to “Japan and its Others” for a moment– here was another area where I thought the literature around linguistic imperialism might be usefully expanded.  Hoffman helpfully points out that power has long been undertheorized in the field of Japanese education.  I think this is particularly true when it comes to my particular professional corner of it: foreign language education, which in Japan typically means, EFL/ ESL.  It would be interested to trace the changing tides of EFL/ ESL education in Japan compared with the changing tides of the clout of Japanese Education in general in the world.  I wonder what patterns such a historical analysis might uncover.

Hopefully more to come in that vein next entry.  Now it’s time to pick up my son from Kindergarten.

 

Follow-Up

One promising thread that I was able to pick out from the intro to DeCorker and Bjork’s collection, Japanese Education in an Era of Globalization: Culture, Politics and Equity, was their aim to critique views of Japanese education which elide complexity in favor of a treatment of the Ministry of Education policy as THE driving force in the education system here.  They don’t mention specific authors they wish to critique, who come at Japanese education from this standpoint, but a review I read in the History of Education Quarterly (a journal which is a little light on Japanese Ed. history) takes this view.  Of course, MEXT is undeniably a powerful entity in the creation and implementation of education policy and curriculum here.  Furthermore, it is an organization with a more than 130-year history, which is to say, it is not undeserving of study.  However, I think it will be more useful to look at present-day education in Japan through a historical lens that de-centers what has been the central education authority in Japan.

Why do I think it is important to decenter the center in this case?  Well, apart from having a contrarian streak a mile wide, it has been my experience that teachers have the greatest influence on what education amounts to.  While they are beholden to the dictates of organizations like the Ministry of Education on paper, the realities (for better or for worse) off classrooms are always deviating from these norms.  I realize that it’s not nearly so easy to get a picture of what actually happens in classrooms as it is to follow the paper trail left by a government ministry dedicated to dictating what ought to be happening in classrooms.  But the counter-examples that are available will be instructive for teachers who may see their social-reconstructivist aims as being at odds with the curriculum from above.

The example of Hiroshima Jogakuin, the Protestant missionary school for girls, which was very much subject to the Ministry’s war-time dictates, and came under increasing scrutiny due in larg part to its employment of American staff (including head teacher, Nanny Gaines).  The activities of these foreign teachers in Japan and the support they received from their Japanese counterparts is I think a great model for present-day curriculum involving the cooperation of Japanese Nationals and non-Japanese native English speaker teachers (NESTs).

But that will have to wait.  And I will have to pick this thread up again a little later on.